Camellia (Camellia) can be represented by both shrubs and a tree form. In the last century, garden ornamental culture was unusually popular due to the abundant and beautiful flowering. Currently, tree-shaped garden camellia is widely used in landscape design.
Tree camellia is capable of reaching a height of 20 m. The flowering tree is very decorative and strewn with attractive, delicate pink large flowers. With proper care, this garden culture is quite capable of competing with sakura. In terms of popularity, varieties of tree camellia are overtaken only by Japanese camellia, which very successfully combines external attractiveness with unpretentiousness in care.
You need to plant a garden tree-shaped camellia on a previously prepared and correctly selected site. On ordinary garden and clay soils, the decorative plant does not feel too comfortable. The soil on the site should be acidic, moderately loose and reasonably well ventilated.
It is very important to ensure high-quality drainage for the tree culture. For optimal growth and good development, the plant will need diffused but bright enough light, so it is best to place the culture on the western or eastern side of the site. In the young part of the garden, camellia must be obscured by tall garden plantings.
How to grow camellia at home
In advance, it is necessary to prepare planting pits, on the bottom of which about five centimeters of expanded clay of medium fraction or natural pebble should be poured, which will prevent overmoistening of the soil, and, as a result, will reduce the risk of damage to the root system of the camellia by rot. To fill the landing pit, it is allowed to use a ready-made nutrient substrate, but experienced flower growers prefer to use self-prepared soil based on coniferous soil, peat soil, the middle fraction of sand and moss-sphagnum or sawdust mixed in equal proportions.
To increase soil fertility, a complex composition based on sulfur, potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen components can be added in combination with the main trace elements.
Planting seedlings of garden tree camellia should be carried out with extreme caution, due to the fragility of the root system. In order to minimize trauma to the roots of an ornamental plant, it is recommended to transplant the culture from the transport container together with an earthen lump, by means of transshipment. It is very important to properly deepen the roots. The root neck should be flush with the ground or slightly higher. Otherwise, flowering garden camellia may be completely absent.
In home gardening, only two methods of propagating tree camellia are used:
- sowing fresh seeds in seedlings, and the subsequent picking when the second or third leaf appears. The method is rarely used in private floriculture, and the resulting adult plants lose varietal characteristics, but may have increased resistance to adverse external conditions;
- vegetative propagation varietal garden camellia with non-lignified cuttings 7-10 cm long with several well-developed leaves. Cuttings are most often cut in the summer, and the rooting process in the soil substrate takes about one and a half to two months.
For rooting and sowing seed material, a substrate with a pH of 4.5-5.0 is used, consisting of components such as turf land, sand, peat and leaf land in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 2 parts.
The rules for caring for tree-shaped garden camellia go down with the technology of growing almost any type of this decorative flowering culture:
- garden ornamental plant should be provided with regular watering, which is especially important in hot and dry summers;
- when determining the regime of irrigation measures, it is recommended to focus not only on weather conditions, but also take into account the composition of the soil and the place of cultivation;
- blooming tree-like camellia is not afraid of minor night frosts, however, rapid thawing of flowers under the rays of the morning sun often causes darkening and death of the petals;
- it is best to form a crown of garden culture in the spring, by pinching the apical part of the shoots;
- in order to improve branching and stimulate the growth processes of the axillary buds, the crown is trimmed in the last autumn decade;
- It is advisable to feed an outdoor plant no more than twice a year, and the best result can be obtained by alternating organic and mineral fertilizers.
Many early-flowering acidophilic plants that can be represented by winter-flowering erica, rhododendrons and azaleas, magnolia, magonia, daphne, witch hazel, early-flowering honeysuckle, viburnum and skimia can become a classic addition to tree camellia.
Pest and disease protection
When growing garden tree camellia, flower growers may encounter problems such as a lack of flowering, a change in the color of foliage, falling leaves and buds, withering and drying out of the aerial part of the decorative culture. Almost all diseases and problems with foliage and flowering are due to a violation of camellia care rulesas well as excessive or insufficient irrigation measures.
Due to some fungal diseases, blackish-gray spots form on the foliage, and petals are browned and flowers fall. To combat the main pathogenic microflora, complex fungicides are used. Oidium is manifested by grayish spots on the foliage, and sulfur-based preparations are used to get rid of the disease. Among other things, garden camellias are sensitive to the mosaic virus, which causes yellowing of the veins on the leaves. The main pests of camellia, cultivated on the street, are represented by aphids and bugs. A single scythe weevil causes special harm to the plant, the larvae of which destroy the root system, as a result of which the decorative culture perishes.
Difficulties in growing camellia
It is important to remember that garden camellia can tolerate significant cold, but it is rarely possible to tree-like decorative culture to survive without damage at temperatures below minus 20-24 ° C. To the category of the most winter-hardy varieties today it is customary to classify the varieties "Donation", "Jury's Yellow", "Debbie" and "Hagoromo". Subject to the cultivation technology, these varieties bloom in the spring, but in winter these garden camellias perfectly retain their bright green color of foliage.